After the Batu Hijau mine in Sumbawa, Indonesia, began operating in 2000, mine managers identified area farmers as a top security risk because they were threatening to shut down the mine unless they were given jobs there. Among various efforts to get local residents “back on the land,” the mine began sponsoring participatory integrated pest management trainings that were supposed to turn residents into productive and self-reliant subjects. Instead, these trainings evoked subjects who claimed—through their resistance to certain aspects of the trainings—that they were dependent on and entitled to conventional forms of development aid from the mine.
Batu Hijau Copper and Gold mine (Sumbawa, Indonesia, 2007). Photo by Marina Welker.
Farmers learning to make origami cranes in an exercise in practical learning (Sumbawa, Indonesia, 2002). Photo by Marina Welker.
Left: A Sekongkang resident analyzes the structural position of farmers (Sumbawa, Indonesia, 2002).
Right: Weighing rice yields from demonstration plots to compare different techniques in spacing plants (Sumbawa, Indonesia, 2002).
Left: Integrated Pest Management Field School: The School Without Walls (Sumbawa, Indonesia, 2002).
Right: Farmers constructing a tower out of straws in a leadership exercise (Sumbawa, Indonesia, 2002).
All photos by Marina Welker.